Enhancing Food-Based Safety Net Programs: Cross Country Implementation, Evolution and Learning (Indonesia Case Study)

Completion Year:
Social Protection

Collaborating Partners

Funding Body:

This study is funded by The World Bank Washington DC.


Description & Progress

This research aims to document key design and implementation features of Raskin program and to identify options to improve the performance of the scheme.



Raskin is the largest nationwide food-based safety net (social protection) program in Indonesia, and it has been implemented for more than a decade. Raskin became one of the programs to address poverty reduction and part of social protection program managed by the Central Government. Since 2013 until today, approximately 15.5 million households have been set as the target beneficiaries in an annual basis, represents 25% of households with the lowest welfare status in Indonesia. Many obstacles and irregularities occurred during the implementation process, mainly in achieving indicator accuracy and budget availability.

The study finds that all targeting methods are subject to weaknesses. Regardless of the targeting method employed, the implementation process has the greatest impact on the success of the program. 

The current studies initiate by the World Bank on documenting experience of the host country FBSNs including Indonesia will serve as a great project where participants from different countries will exchange their experiences, knowledge and policy making process. The case study activities included literature reviews, interviews and discussions with stakeholders as cover:

  1. Discuss the levels, trends and nature of poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition in the examined country;
  2. Contextualize the examined program within the broader set of safety net programs available in the country, including a description of possible linkages with some of those programs;
  3. Review published literature, surveys, reports, and other materials on the program’s design, performance and institutional framework;
  4. Conduct stakeholder interviews, including with government officials currently engaged in the program, key policymakers that were so in the past, select World Bank staff, academia, private sector, international agencies, civil society, and other relevant key informants;
  5. Conduct small focus group discussion with select Indonesian experts identified during interviews, and attend consultations/workshops on the initiative, including presenting ideas and findings as well as providing advice and comments on other case studies. 



SMERU researchers presented their outline report to the World Bank staff in Washington DC to receive feedback on the study. This will help in writing the final report. The team has also submitted the first revision and conducted an internal seminar at SMERU. Up until now, researchers has revised the report based on the inputs received.