The study explores the community’s understanding of the condition of their welfare and the experiences associated with the ups and downs of welfare. This report was written based on various reports generated in the two studies of Moving Out of Poverty carried out by SMERU. The main focus of the study is on the movers group, the group of people who managed to improve their welfare, both those who managed to move out of poverty and those who have not yet been able to do so. This report compares movers in three regions, namely East Java, North Maluku, and West Timor, to investigate the characteristics of movers and how the process of welfare improvement takes place.
Five research communities were selected for each region, including those located in rural areas and those located in (semi) urban areas. Data collection was conducted by combining the quantitative (household surveys) and qualitative (focus group discussions, life history interviews of men and women, interviews with community leaders/figures, and observation) methods.
The study found several patterns of processes of improving welfare and moving out of poverty, namely retaining the same work/livelihood but obtaining better returns; shifting to another occupation or livelihood that is larger or more stable in its returns; developing several sources of income; and having a fixed salary (by becoming a civil servant or an employee). Welfare improvement is affected by the capacity of the individual or household, the capacity of the community, and the local and regional contexts. Therefore, these three elements must be used as entry points in the making of policies and development programs to increase community welfare.
Keywords: poverty dynamics, welfare mobility, East Java, North Maluku, West Timor