Description & Progress
Indonesia is gradually moving towards an aging society. Currently, the number of elderlies in Indonesia is reaching 25.6 million people or around 9.29% of the whole population (SUSENAS, 2019). The number is predicted to increase to around 20% in 2040 (BPS 2018 cited in MAHKOTA and TNP2K, n.d.) and will reach around 25% of population by 2050 (UN , 2017 cited in MAHKOTA and TNP2K, n.d.). To anticipate this demographic shift, it is imperative to assure the welfare of these elders as they are becoming less productive and vulnerable to any risks and shocks. It is also crucial to provide this group with a sufficient social protection programme especially those who live under poverty.
Social protection programmes targeting the elders play a crucial role in assuring their welfare especially the poor elders. It is expected that the programme would allow them to fulfil their basic needs and, to some extent, to relieve the burdens of their family members. TNP2K (2020) shows that around 11% of elderlies live under poverty and more than 60% of them live with other family members who most probably act as their caregivers.
Government both at the national and sub-national level already have several social protection programmes for the elderly. At the national level, the government through the Family of Hope Programme (Program Keluarga Harapan/PKH) started to include elderly components as part of its beneficiary criteria in 2017. It reached around 2 million elders in 2019 (MAHKOTA and TNP2K, n.d.). At the sub-national level, there are several local governments that have programmes targeting the elders such as in Aceh and Jakarta. In Jakarta, for example, the government issue a Card for the Elderly of Jakarta (Kartu Lansia Jakarta/KLJ) which provides benefits up to IDR 600,000 monthly and it has benefited around 40,419 elders (MAHKOTA and TNP2K, n.d.).
Despite the availability of such programmes, the number of elders who receive benefits, in general, are still relatively low. There are only around 12% of elders who have access to social protection programmes which includes pension funds for civil servants and contribution-based social protection programmes such as insurance (BPS 2017 cited in TNP2K, 2020). Moreover, for non-contributing-based social protection programmes or social assistance, only around 2% of elders with social protection.
Due to the limited number of elderlies who have social protection, it is relevant to conduct a study to understand the welfare of the elderly who live with and without social protection and also understand the implementation of the existing social protection programmes targeting this group.
- To gain comprehensive knowledge of the existing welfare of the elderly and social protection programme targeting the elderly (including contributory and non-contributory)
- To collect stories of the elderly with and without social protection in DKI Jakarta, DI Yogyakarta, and Bali.
Objectives related to KLJ
- To learn the policy motivation behind the KLJ program implementation
- To investigate the implementation process of KLJ, including challenges and obstacles
- To evaluate the impact of KLJ on the welfare of the elderly and their families
Due to the Covid-19 pandemic that has impacted on the fieldwork plan, the ToR of the projet is adjusted and revised so that the assignment will not include the data collection and field interviews. Between mid April – Mid June 2020, the SMERU team will only conduct analysis with secondary data, consultation with stakeholders at the national and province levels to get information of existing social protection and its change because an impact of COVID-19, other preparations prior to the fieldwork, and reporting.
We are assigned to develop mixed-method methodologies, using both quantitative and qualitative instruments and take a comprehensive approach to household/family/individual and community well-being, including impact on children, caregivers, etc.
Scope of work in developing quantitative and qualitative methodologies and instruments in details are:
- develop sampling frames,
- develop household questionnaires that consist of, among others, household chararcteristics, household members’ and elders’characteristics
- conduct secondary data analysis on elders characteristics and situation, as well as elders’ access to social protection programmes
- develop interview and FGD instruments (for household/individual/elders as well as stakeholders’ interviews/FGDs),
- develop semi-structured questionnaires/instruments for case studies of several households/families/elderly
- consult with stakeholders (program implementers, and others) at national and regional levels to obtain information of existing elderly programs and its change because of COVID-19 pandemic.