Enhancing Food-Based Safety Net Programs: Cross Country Implementation, Evolution and Learning (Indonesia Case Study)

Completion Year:
Social Protection

Collaborating Partners

Funding Body:

The World Bank Washington DC.


Description & Progress

This research aims to document key design and implementation features of Raskin program and to identify options to improve the performance of the scheme.



Raskin is the largest nationwide food-based safety net program in Indonesia and has been implemented for almost two decades. Raskin is one of the programs aimed at addressing poverty reduction managed by the Central Government. Many obstacles and irregularities occurred during the implementation process, mainly in achieving accuracy indicators. This study was initiated by the World Bank and focuses on documenting the experiences of the Food-based Safety Net (FBSN) host countries, including Indonesia. The Indonesian case study has two core objectives: to document key design and implementation features of the Raskin program and to identify options for improving the performance of the scheme.


Metodology and data

The case study activities included literature reviews, as well as interviews and discussions held with stakeholders to (i) discuss the level, trends and nature of poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition in the examined country and (ii) contextualize the examined program within the broader set of safety net programs available in the country, including a description of possible linkages to some of those  programs. In addition, the reaserach team also reviewed published literature, surveys, reports, and  other materials on the program’s design, performance and institutional framework; and conducted  small focus group discussions with select Raskin experts, and attended consultations/workshops on the initiative, including presenting ideas and findings, as well as providing advice and comments on other case studies.


Research Highlight

The study finds that all targeting methods are subject to weaknesses. Regardless of the targeting method employed, the implementation process has the greatest impact on the success of the program. There are eight aspects of implementation that can be optimized to improve the program:

  1. minimizing the amount of “missing rice”,
  2. improving rice quality,
  3. improving targeting accuracy and data updating processes,
  4. adjusting the amount of rice actually received by households,
  5. improving distribution mechanisms through the use of a card or voucher,
  6. reducing the price paid by recipient households to be in line with the stipulated price,
  7. increasing transparency, and
  8. improving program governance.



The SMERU researchers presented the report outline and draft report to the team of authors at the World Bank Office in Washington DC, followed by a peer-review session with a team assigned by the WB. The paper will be included as a chapter in a book published by the World Bank on cross country comparisons of food-based safety net programs.



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