Monitoring of PNPM Urban Livelihoods

Team Member: Syaikhu Usman, Ruhmaniyati , Ana Rosidha Tamyis
Aceh, Jawa Timur, Maluku Utara
Livelihood & Community Development, Poverty & Inequality

Collaborating Partners

This study is funded by the World Bank



Description & Progress

Description & Progress

The primary objective of this monitoring study was to provide timely feedback to improve or modify the ongoing program and the expansion of the program.



The National Program for Community Developmemnt (PNPM) Urban team is planning to increase its emphasis on demand-side economic activities, in addition to the supply-side. This will be done by providing special assistance to the Community Self-Reliance Agency (BKM) to develop economic opportunities such as introducing new products, expanding marketing networks, and creating job opportunities.

In light of this, PNPM Urban has developed a pilot program called Sustainable Social Activities (KSB), which is  also called the PNPM Urban Livelihoods program, and implemented in 14 cities in seven provinces. The KSB is different from existing community-driven micro-finance and livelihoods programs in Indonesia in four significant ways: (i) it aims to mobilize the excluded urban poor and empower them economically; (ii) it intends to focus on institution-building and group capacity development; (iii) it will provide financial management skills training; and (iv) it will create systems to enable demand-based technical assistance for the participants. 

The primary objective of this monitoring study was to provide timely feedback to improve or modify the ongoing program and the expansion of the program. It is of important to the program development, since a livelihood program of this nature are typically process-heavy, and there is a need for responsive and adaptive monitoring support to intensively engage with various stakeholders. The focus of this monitoring was to track and monitor the implementation of the PNPM Urban Livelihoods pilot by using a more participatory and demand-responsive approach in the implementing organizations. The study was carried out in six kelurahan located in three pilot cities: Surabaya (East Java), Banda Aceh (NAD), and Tidore (North Maluku). It consisted of four interconnected study activities: (i) process monitoring, (ii) participatory evaluation by the community, (iii) participating in and and providing inputs into the project’s learning events, and (iv) household case study. 

The study began in January 2015 and completed in December 2015. In general, the study found that the implementation of the program implementation was less than optimal so that it failed to fully achieve the intended objectives. Some of the implementation milestones were not delivered in accordance to the program’s guidelines. This was partly due to the inconsistency between program's ideal concept and the technical aspect, i.e. the actual condition faced by program implementers in the field, program implementers' understanding toward the substance of the program, and program implementers' tendency to considers group assistance not so important. In the future, improvement to the program needs to be made both in terms of the concept of the program and the overall field implementation, started from its early initiation to business development. 


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