Poor Women’s Access to Public Services - Endline

Team Member: Nila Warda, Mayang Rizky, Veto Tyas Indrio, Ana Rosidha Tamyis, Dyan Widyaningsih, Ruhmaniyati , Jimmy Daniel Berlianto Oley, Asep Kurniawan, Sri Murniati
Completion Year:
Sumatera Utara, Jawa Tengah, Kalimantan Barat, Sulawesi Selatan, Nusa Tenggara Timur
Gender, Health, Labor, Migration & Informal Sector, Poverty & Inequality, Social Protection

Collaborating Partners

Project Donor/Funder: Cowater - DFAT


Description & Progress


The MAMPU Program provides a combination of grants and capacity development support to partner organizations working in five thematic areas:

  1. Improving women’s access to government social protection programs;
  2. Increasing women’s access to jobs and removing workplace discrimination;
  3. Improving conditions for women’s overseas labour migration;
  4. Strengthening women’s leadership for better maternal and reproductive health;
  5. Strengthening women’s leadership to reduce violence against women.

Improving access to government services is a long-term outcome, therefore a comprehensive study is needed to understand how and why access changes for poor households across a diversity of contexts. A longitudinal study of poor women and their households has been underway since 2014 to capture the changes in access to services among poor women. The 2014 baseline provided a preliminary picture of lives of poor women in relation to the five MAMPU thematic areas and a midline study was done in 2017 to document changes between 2014 and 2017. To continue measuring MAMPU’s contribution to improve the access of services for poor women, an endline study is carried out as part of a 2014-2020 longitudinal study series.

The endline will draw on data from the midline to analyze changes at the village level. The midline study found consistent and widespread increases in access for poor households in two areas: social protection programs and reproductive health and nutrition services. Causal factors identified included a commitment from government to improve the services. MAMPU partners also contributed through awareness raising at the grass-root level which increased the likelihood of poor women to want to access the service.  Meanwhile, changes in access to other services, such as protection for home workers, migrant workers and victims of violence of women were more varied. According to the midline study, there was significant changes were in districts where MAMPU partners were working on the issue.

Given the highlights from the midline, the endline will need to look beyond the figures. This will include exploring the differences between villages where MAMPU works and those without MAMPU. The endline study will be the final round for longitudinal study hence it is expected to have deeper analysis on the ground to deliver better understanding the performance of MAMPU. It will not only record the changes, but also to specifically draw correlation between the demand and supply providers of the services, and how MAMPU influences them.


The objective of the endline study is to evaluate socio-economic conditions among poor women and their household in a sample of MAMPU and non-MAMPU villages across Indonesia and to assess the changes of poor women’s access to basic services since the 2017 midline study. In particular, the study will address two main research questions:

  1. What major changes have occurred in the access of poor households to key government services of poor women over time?
  2. What factors have contributed to these changes and through what process (including changes in the supply and demand for services)?


We combine the quantitative and qualitative method with a quantitative method leading the analysis. The role of the quantitative method is mainly to capture the changes experienced by poor women to access public services in five thematic areas focused by MAMPU. To do so, the quantitative method will perform the analysis by specifically contrasting the difference between poor women who live in villages where intervention from MAMPU partners are available and those who live in villages who do not receive the theme-specific program from MAMPU partner. Furthermore, the role of the qualitative method is to identify factors that could explain the observed changes experienced by poor women both from the demand and the supply sides. In particular, it will explore the dynamics of collective action performed by poor women, how MAMPU partners play a role, and how it would affect their access in public services. The qualitative analysis will cover at most two thematic areas for each district. Combined, analysis from both methods will provide a comprehensive understanding of the contribution of existing interventions, including those from MAMPU partners and other factors to changes of poor women’s access to public services in five thematic areas during 2014-2019.

The study will retain the same families and individuals respondents surveyed in the baseline and midline study. Variations to the locations and samples due to changes in partners’ working area and unreachable families or individuals should be based on reliable techniques and indicators to ensure the consistency of the measurement.

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