Gender and Fossil-Fuel Subsidy Reform: Data Audit from Indonesia


The study is part of a broader project on energy and gender supported by the International Network on Gender and Sustainable Energy (ENERGIA) and the UK Department for International Development (DfID), that has completed an international literature review and scoping studies in Bangladesh, India and Nigeria.

The Government of Indonesia is considering reform of its consumer subsidies for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) due to their rising fiscal cost: IDR 25 trillion (US$ 1.9 billion) in 2016 – around half of its total energy subsidy expenditure. Subsidized 3kg LPG cylinders are currently available to all citizens. Reforms are likely to target the subsidy to the poor or replace it with cash transfers through the social assistance system.

The impact of energy subsidy reform on the poor has been widely studied. While most subsidy benefits tend to be captured by the wealthy that have the most purchasing power, poor households are most vulnerable because they can least afford higher energy prices. Gender differentiated impacts are, however, poorly understood. In the case of LPG, a household fuel used for cooking, women are likely to be more affected than men because they do most of the cooking and household management.


This research project aims to inform the study of vulnerability for poor and near-poor women in LPG subsidy reform by examining the status of existing data relevant to energy use and gender in Indonesia. In particular, it aims to identify: relevant background information; and, relevant prior work that could instruct research or indicate that no additional research effort in that area is required.



Data was collected primarily from five national household data surveys:

  1. the National Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas) 2015
  2. the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) 2014
  3. the National Labor Force Survey (Sakernas) 2015
  4. the Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) 2012
  5. LSI Social Issues Survey (LSI) 2014.

The data audit is conducted over the following indicators:

  1. Welfare: time spent on different household activities, education and media access
  2. Productivity: employment and income
  3. Empowerment: decision-making on household expenditure, ownership, and political empowerment


Widjajanti Isdijoso
Niken Kusumawardhani
Team Member 
Nila Warda
Niken Kusumawardhani
Rachma Indah Nurbani
Yudi Fajar M. Wahyu
Widjajanti Isdijoso
Completion Year 
Project Donor 
The International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD)
Technical Partner 
Penelitian dan Pelatihan Ekonomika dan Bisnis, Universitas Gajah Mada (P2EB FEB UGM)
Type of Service

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